Chapter 11: Byzantines, Russians and Turks Interact Worksheet Answer Key PDF - Studylib
Chapter 11 Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact Worksheet Answer Keys PDF
If you are looking for a comprehensive and engaging guide to learn about the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the Turks in the Middle Ages, then you have come to the right place. In this article, we will provide you with a summary of chapter 11 byzantines russians and turks interact worksheet answer keys pdf, which is based on the Holt McDougal textbook World History: Patterns of Interaction. This chapter covers some of the most fascinating and influential civilizations that shaped Europe and Asia from the 6th to the 15th centuries. You will learn about their origins, achievements, challenges, interactions, and legacies. You will also find some useful resources to help you review and test your knowledge of this chapter.
chapter 11 byzantine russians and turks interact worksheet answer keys pdf
The Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire after the fall of Rome in the 5th century. It lasted for over a thousand years until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Byzantine Empire was centered around its capital city, Constantinople, which was a strategic and cultural hub that connected Europe and Asia. The Byzantine Empire was known for its political stability, military strength, artistic creativity, religious diversity, and cultural preservation.
The achievements and challenges of Emperor Justinian
One of the most famous and influential Byzantine emperors was Justinian, who ruled from 527 to 565. He was a high-ranking nobleman who married a former actress named Theodora, who became his co-ruler and advisor. Justinian had a vision to restore the glory of Rome by reconquering its lost territories in North Africa, Italy, and Spain. He sent his general Belisarius to lead his armies against various enemies, such as the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, and the Lombards. Justinian also initiated an ambitious building program that included fortifications, aqueducts, bridges, churches, and monuments. His most famous architectural masterpiece was the Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), a magnificent cathedral that combined Roman, Greek, Persian, and Syrian elements. Justinian also commissioned a panel of legal experts to compile and organize all the Roman laws into a single code called Justinian's Code. This code became the basis for many legal systems in Europe and beyond.
However, Justinian also faced many challenges during his reign. He had to deal with frequent revolts, plagues, famines, earthquakes, and wars that drained his resources and weakened his empire. He also faced religious conflicts within his empire, especially between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church was led by the patriarch, who was appointed by the emperor and had authority over all the bishops in the east. The Roman Catholic Church was led by the pope, who claimed supremacy over all the Christians in the world. The two churches disagreed on many issues, such as the use of icons, the nature of Christ, and the role of the clergy. In 1054, the pope and the patriarch excommunicated each other, leading to a permanent split between the two churches.
The role of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the patriarch
The Eastern Orthodox Church was a major source of identity, unity, and influence for the Byzantine Empire. It played an important role in shaping the culture, politics, education, and art of the Byzantines. The Eastern Orthodox Church was based on the teachings of Jesus Christ and his apostles, as well as the traditions and doctrines of the early church fathers. The Eastern Orthodox Church emphasized the importance of rituals, sacraments, icons, and liturgy in worship. It also valued the authority of councils and consensus in decision-making. The Eastern Orthodox Church was led by the patriarch, who was the highest-ranking bishop in the east. The patriarch had jurisdiction over all the other bishops in his territory, but he did not have absolute power. He was subject to the emperor, who could appoint or depose him at will. The patriarch also had to cooperate with other patriarchs from other regions, such as Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and later Moscow.
The impact of icons and iconoclasm on Byzantine culture and politics
Icons were religious images that were used by Eastern Orthodox Christians to aid their devotion and prayer. Icons were usually painted on wood or metal panels, depicting Jesus Christ, Mary, saints, angels, or scenes from the Bible. Icons were believed to be windows to heaven that connected the faithful with God and his holy ones. Icons were also seen as expressions of faith and art that reflected the beauty and glory of God.
However, icons also caused controversy and conflict within the Byzantine Empire. Some people argued that icons were idolatrous and violated the commandment against making graven images. They also claimed that icons distracted people from worshipping God directly and encouraged superstition and corruption. These people were called iconoclasts (image-breakers), who wanted to destroy all icons and ban their use. In 726, Emperor Leo III issued an edict that ordered all icons to be removed from churches and public places. This sparked a violent iconoclastic controversy that lasted for over a century. Many iconophiles (image-lovers) resisted the iconoclasts and defended their veneration of icons. They argued that icons were not idols but symbols that honored God and his saints. They also cited biblical passages, church fathers, miracles, and traditions that supported their use of icons. In 787, Empress Irene convened a council in Nicaea that restored the legitimacy of icons and condemned iconoclasm as heresy. However, iconoclasm was revived by Emperor Leo V in 814 and continued until 843, when Empress Theodora finally ended it for good.
The iconoclastic controversy had a significant impact on Byzantine culture and politics. It divided the empire into factions that fought each other for power and influence. It also alienated many people from the emperor and the church, especially in Greece and Asia Minor. It also damaged many artistic treasures that were destroyed or defaced by iconoclasts. On the other hand, it also stimulated new forms of art and literature that expressed iconophile views and celebrated icon veneration.
The Rise of Russia
Russia is a vast country that spans across Europe and Asia. Its history is rich and complex, influenced by many different peoples and cultures. In this section, we will focus on how Russia emerged as a distinct civilization from the 9th to the 13th centuries.
The origins and expansion of the Slavic people
The Slavs were a group of Indo-European people who originated from somewhere between Poland and Belarus. They spoke a common language that later branched into different Slavic languages, such as Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbian, Bulgarian, etc. The Slavs lived in small villages that were organized by clans or tribes. They practiced agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting, fishing, and trade. They worshipped nature spirits and ancestors.
From the 6th century onwards, the Slavs began to expand their territory in different directions. Some Slavs moved southward into the Balkans, where they mixed with local peoples such as Greeks, Romans, and Bulgars. The influence of Byzantine culture and religion on Russia
As the Slavs expanded their territory, they came into contact with different peoples and cultures. One of the most influential was the Byzantine Empire, which had a strong presence in the Black Sea region and the Balkans. The Byzantines traded with the Slavs and introduced them to their advanced civilization, which included art, architecture, literature, law, and administration. The Byzantines also influenced the Slavs in their religion, which was Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Slavs were initially pagans who worshipped nature spirits and ancestors. However, some of them converted to Christianity through the missionary work of Byzantine monks and priests. The most famous missionaries were Saints Cyril and Methodius, who were brothers from Thessaloniki. They were sent by Emperor Michael III to preach to the Moravians in 863. They devised a new alphabet for the Slavic language, based on Greek letters and some symbols from other scripts. This alphabet became known as Cyrillic, and it is still used by many Slavic languages today. Cyril and Methodius also translated the Bible and liturgical texts into Slavic, making them accessible to more people. They also founded schools and churches in Moravia and other Slavic lands.
The conversion of Vladimir and the spread of Christianity in Russia
One of the most important events in Russian history was the conversion of Vladimir, the prince of Kiev, to Christianity in 988. Vladimir was a powerful ruler who united several Slavic tribes under his authority. He also expanded his domain by conquering neighboring lands, such as Poland and Bulgaria. He was a pagan who had many wives and concubines, and he built temples for various gods.
However, Vladimir was also interested in learning about other religions. He sent envoys to different countries to observe their faiths and report back to him. He heard about Islam from the Volga Bulgars, Judaism from the Khazars, Roman Catholicism from the Germans, and Eastern Orthodoxy from the Byzantines. He was impressed by the beauty and splendor of the Byzantine church in Constantinople, which his envoys described as \"heaven on earth\". He also saw an opportunity to ally himself with the Byzantine Empire, which was under attack by the Pechenegs.
Vladimir decided to adopt Eastern Orthodoxy as his religion. He agreed to marry Anna, the sister of Emperor Basil II, on the condition that he would be baptized. He also ordered his people to be baptized in the Dnieper river. He destroyed the pagan idols and temples and built churches and monasteries instead. He also promoted education and culture based on Byzantine models. He became known as Vladimir the Great, and he is considered as one of the founders of Russian civilization.
The achievements and challenges of Yaroslav the Wise
Vladimir's son Yaroslav succeeded him as the prince of Kiev in 1019. He was a wise and capable ruler who continued his father's legacy of expanding and strengthening Russia. He defeated the Pechenegs and other nomadic invaders who threatened his borders. He also established diplomatic relations with other European countries, such as Poland, Hungary, Norway, Sweden, France, Germany, and Byzantium. He arranged marriages for his children with foreign princes and princesses, creating a network of alliances.
Yaroslav also supported culture and learning in his realm. He built many churches and monasteries, such as the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, which was modeled after the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. He also founded schools and libraries, where he collected books from different sources. He commissioned a legal code called Russkaya Pravda (Russian Justice), which regulated various aspects of social life. He also encouraged trade and commerce within his domain and with other countries.
However, Yaroslav also faced some challenges during his reign. He had to deal with internal conflicts among his sons, who fought for power after his death. He also had to cope with external threats from new enemies, such as the Mongols, who invaded Russia in 1237-1240. The Mongols destroyed many cities and towns, including Kiev itself. They imposed a harsh rule over Russia for over two centuries, until the rise of Moscow in the 15th century.
The Turks Move In
The Turks were a group of nomadic people who originated from Central Asia. They spoke a Turkic language that belonged to the Altaic language family. They were skilled warriors and horsemen who lived in tents and moved from place to place in search of pasture and plunder. They were also influenced by various cultures and religions, such as Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Islam.
The migration and conversion of the Turks to Islam
The Turks began to migrate westward from their original homeland in the 6th century. They encountered the Sassanid Empire and the Byzantine Empire, which were the two major powers in the Middle East at that time. The Turks served as mercenaries and allies for both empires, depending on the situation. They also fought among themselves for supremacy and territory.
In the 10th century, some of the Turks converted to Islam, which was the dominant religion in the region. They adopted the Arabic script and some aspects of Arab culture. They also became involved in the political and religious affairs of the Muslim world. They supported various Muslim dynasties, such as the Abbasids, the Fatimids, and the Seljuks.
The rise and decline of the Seljuk Empire
The Seljuks were one of the first groups of Turks who migrated into the weakened Abbasid Empire. In 1055, they attacked and captured Baghdad from the Persians. They established themselves as the new rulers of the Muslim world, while recognizing the Abbasid caliph as their spiritual leader. They also expanded their empire to include Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, and parts of Central Asia.
The Seljuks were known for their military prowess and their patronage of culture and learning. They defended the Muslim lands from the Crusaders, who launched a series of attacks from Europe to reclaim the Holy Land in the 11th and 12th centuries. They also supported scholars and scientists, such as Omar Khayyam, Al-Ghazali, and Ibn Sina. They fostered a revival of Islamic art, architecture, literature, and philosophy.
However, the Seljuk Empire also faced many challenges and problems. It was divided into several smaller states that often fought with each other. It also faced rebellions from various ethnic and religious groups within its domain. It also had to deal with new enemies, such as the Mongols, who invaded their lands in the 13th century. The Seljuk Empire collapsed by the end of the 13th century.
The impact of the Crusades on the Turks and the Byzantines
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns launched by Christian Europe against Muslim Asia for control of the Holy Land between 1095 and 1291. The Crusades had a significant impact on both the Turks and the Byzantines.
The emergence of new Turkish states in Anatolia
As the Seljuk Empire declined, new Turkish states emerged in Anatolia. These states were ruled by different dynasties that claimed descent from the Seljuks or other Turkic tribes. They were often rivals and enemies of each other, but they also shared a common culture and religion. They also faced a common threat from the Mongols, who invaded Anatolia several times and imposed their suzerainty over some of the Turkish states.
Some of the most notable Turkish states in Anatolia were: - The Danishmends, who ruled over central and eastern Anatolia from 1071 to 1178. They were known for their military prowess and their patronage of architecture and literature. They also fought against the Crusaders and the Byzantines. - The Artuqids, who ruled over southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia from 1102 to 1409. They were known for their cultural diversity and tolerance, as they had a mixed population of Turks, Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, and others. They also supported art, science, and philosophy. - The Saltuqids, who ruled over northeastern Anatolia from 1071 to 1202. They were known for their resistance to the Mongols and their promotion of Sunni Islam. They also built many mosques and madrasas (schools). - The Mengujekids, who ruled over eastern Anatolia from 1072 to 1277. They were known for their alliance with the Georgians and their construction of fortresses and caravanserais (roadside inns). - The Rum Seljuks, who ruled over most of western and central Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. They were the most powerful and influential of the Turkish states in Anatolia. They established their capital in Konya and expanded their territory by conquering parts of Byzantium and Armenia. They also fostered a golden age of culture and learning, known as the Anatolian Renaissance. They produced many famous poets, such as Rumi and Yunus Emre. They also built many monuments, such as the Alaeddin Mosque and the Mevlana Museum.
These Turkish states contributed to the Turkification of Anatolia, which involved the gradual assimilation of the native peoples into the Turkish culture and language. They also paved the way for the rise of the Ottoman Empire, which emerged as a small principality in northwestern Anatolia in the late 13th century and eventually conquered all of Anatolia and beyond.
In this article, we have summarized chapter 11 byzantines russians and turks interact worksheet answer keys pdf, which covers the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the Turks in the Middle Ages. We have learned about their origins, achievements, challenges, interactions, and legacies. We have also seen how they influenced each other and shaped Europe and Asia.
This chapter is important to study because it helps us understand the roots of some of the major civilizations and nations that exist today. It also helps us appreciate the diversity and complexity of human history and culture. It also helps us recognize some of the similarities and differences among different peoples and regions.
Here are some frequently asked questions about this chapter with brief answers:
What was Justinian's Code?
Justinian's Code was a collection of Roman laws that was compiled and organized by Emperor Justinian in the 6th century. It consisted of four works: the Code, which contained imperial decrees; the Digest, which contained legal opinions; the Institutes, which contained legal principles; and the Novels, which contained new laws.
What was Cyrillic?
Cyrillic was an alphabet that was devised by Saints Cyril and Methodius for writing Slavic languages in the 9th century. It was based on Greek letters with some additions from other scripts. It is still used by many Slavic languages today.
What was iconoclasm?
Iconoclasm was a movement that opposed the use and veneration of icons (religious images) in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. It was supported by some emperors and bishops who considered icons to be idolatrous and heretical. It was resisted by many monks and laypeople who considered icons to be sacred and beneficial. It lasted from 726 to 843, with periods of restoration and revival.
What was the Crusades?
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns launched by Christian Europe against Muslim Asia for control of the Holy Land between 1095 and 1291. They were motivated by religious zeal, political ambition, economic interest, and social pressure. They had various outcomes and impacts on both sides.
What was the Anatolian Renaissance?
The Anatolian Renaissance was a period of cultural and intellectual flourishing in the Rum Seljuk state in Anatolia in the 13th century. It was inspired by the Persian and Arabic traditions as well as the local Turkish and Greek heritage. It produced many poets, such as Rumi and Yunus Emre; scholars, such as Ibn Arabi and Sadreddin Konevi; artists, such as Ahmed Karahisari and Sheykh Hamdullah; and architects, such as Mimar Sinan.